Terminology of Organic Reactions
A mechanism is a complete step-by-step description of the bond breaking and the bond forming steps. Stochiometry is the relationship between reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Thermodynamics is the study of the energy changes that accompany the physical and chemical changes. Kinetics is the study of the rates of chemical reactions. Transition state is the energy state between reactants and products. Activation energy is the energy needed to initiate a chemical reaction. Hammond postulate is the structure of a transition state is most similar to the structure of the closest stable species. Kinetic vs. thermodynamic control is kinetic product predominates at low temperature and thermodynamic product predominates at high temperature. Reactive intermediate is a short-lived species that is an intermediate in a chemical reaction. Catalyst is a compound that increases the rate of reaction without being consumed. Solvent effect is the effect that a solvent has on the rate of reaction.
Reaction of Alkyl Halides
Alkyl halides can be substituted with nucleophiles to form other compounds. Alkyl halides react with potassium hydroxide to yield alkenes. Alkyl halides with lithium to yield alkyl lithium or magnesium to form Grignard reagents.
Reaction of Alkenes
Alkenes react with hydrogen halide to form alkyl halides. Hydrolysis of alkenes form alcohols. Halogenation of alkenes yield dihaloalkanes. Hydrogenation of alkenes give alkanes. Alkenes are oxidized with potassium permanganate to form diols or with ozone to form aldehydes and ketones.
Reaction of Alkynes
Alkynes react with hydrogen halide and halogenated to give alkyl halides. Alkynes are hydrogenated to give alkanes. Alkynes are oxidized with potassium permanganate to give diketones or with ozone to give carboxylic acids.
Reactions of Aromatics
Aromatic compounds are halogenated to give halobenzenes, nitrated to give nitrobenzenes, and sulfonated to yield benzenesulfonic acids. Aromatic compounds undergo Friedel-Craft alkylation to give alkylbenzenes and undergo Friedel-Craft acylation to give ketones.
Reaction of Amines
Amines react with alkyl halides to yield larger amines and react with hydrogen halides to give ammonium salts. Amines react with acid halides to give amides and react with sulfonyl chloride to yield sulfonamides.
Reactions of Alcohols
Alcohols are deprotonated with metal to give alkoxides. Alcohols react with hydrogen halide, phosphorus trihalide, or phosphorus oxychloride to give alkyl halides. Dehydration of alcohols yield alkenes. Zero and primary alcohols are oxidized form aldehydes. Zero and primary alcohols are oxidized to form carboxylic acids. Secondary alcohols are oxidized to yield ketones. Tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidized. Alcohols react with carboxylic acids, in the presence of acid, to yield esters.
Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones
Reduction of aldehydes and ketones yield alcohols and alkanes. Reaction of aldehydes and ketones with alkyl lithium or alkyl magnesium halide give alcohols. Aldehydes and ketones are treated with an amine derivative and acid to give imines. Reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones produce larger amines. Aldehydes are oxidized to carboxylic acids.
Reactions of Carboxylic Acids
The reduction of carboxylic acids produce alcohols. Carboxylic acids react with thionyl chloride to give acid chlorides. The reaction of carboxylic acids with alcohols and acid give esters. Carboxylic acids react with acid halides to give anhydrides.
Reactions of Acid Halides
Hydrolysis of acid halides yield carboxylic acids. Acid halides react with alcohols to form esters. The reaction of acid halides with amines form amides. Acid halides are reduced with to alcohols and aldehydes. Acid chlorides react with dialkyl lithium cuprates to yield ketones.
Reactions of Esters
Hydrolysis of esters yield carboxylic acids and alcohols. Reduction of esters produce alcohols. Esters react with amines to yield amides and alcohols.
Reactions of Anhydrides
Hydrolysis of anhydrides produce carboxylic acids. Anhydrides react with alcohols to yield esters and carboxylic acids. Anhydrides react with amines to give amides and carboxylic acids.
Reactions of Amides
Amides are hydrolyzed with water and acid to give carboxylic acids and ammonium ions. Amides are hydrolyzed with water and base to yield carboxylate anions and amines. Reduction of amides produce amines. Dehydration of amides give nitriles.