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Introduction to Biochemistry

Topic Review on "Title":

Introduction
Living organisms should be able to transform matter and energy into different forms, show response to changes in their environment and show growth and reproduction. All living organisms undergo changes due to large organic compounds called macromolecules. Four main types of macromolecules control all activities. They are proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids.

What is Biochemistry?
Molecules belong to different chemical groups based on their affinity for water. Hydrophobic groups – they can not form hydrogen with water. Ex: Hydrocarbons. Hydrophilic groups – they are attracted to the charges within water. They can form hydrogen bonds with water. Amphipathic groups – have both polar and non polar groups. Ex: Hydrocarbon chain is non polar and carboxyl group is polar.
 
Biochemical compounds
There are four major classes of biochemical compounds - Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. In carbohydrates, sugar units are connected together by ‘glycosidic bonds’. Lipids are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. All proteins are composed of amino acids which are connected by a peptide bond. There are 20 amino acids. Nucleic acids are composed of nucleotides.

Major types of biochemical reactions
Oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, Phosphorolysis, Decarboxylation, deamination and transamination are the major biochemical reactions. Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Reduction is the gain of electrons. Hydrolysis is the chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a water molecule. Phosphorolysis is the splitting of a bond by the addition of phosphoric acid to a compound. Decarboxylation is the loss of carbon dioxide. Deamination is the removal of amino group. Transamination is the transfer of amino group from one molecule to another.

Common Abbreviations
Abbreviations of amino acids, coenzymes, enzymes, nucleic acids have been listed.

How to study biochemistry
The various methods to study biochemistry are – summarize, forming a study group, question-answer sessions with batch mates, practice drawing the biochemical structures to recollect during exams.


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"Title" Tutorial Summary :

Living organisms should be able to transform matter and energy into different forms, show response to changes in their environment and show growth and reproduction. All living organisms undergo changes due to large organic compounds called macromolecules. Four main types of macromolecules control all activities. They are proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids. Based on their affinity to water, the molecules belong to different chemical groups such as hydrophobic, hydrophilic and Amphipathic groups. Major types of biochemical reactions are oxidation/reduction, hydrolysis, Phosphorolysis, Decarboxylation, deamination and transamination. There are several common abbreviations used in biochemistry which are listed in this tutorial.


Tutorial Features:
  • Introduction with elaborate discussion.
  • Concept map to explain the core issues.
  • Each category of reactions, chemical groups, macromolecules explained with structures.
  • Full and further classification of macromolecules.
  • Common abbreviations and a list for ready reference.

"Title" Topic List:

What is Biochemistry?

  • Introduction
  • Definition

Types of chemical groups

  • Hydrophobic
  • Hydrophilic
  • Amphipathic

Types of biochemical compounds

  • Carbohydrates
  • Amino acids and proteins
  • Nucleotides and nucleic acids
  • Lipids

Major types of biochemical reactions

  • Oxidation-reduction
  • Hydrolysis
  • Phosphorolysis
  • Decarboxylation
  • Deamination
  • Transamination

Common abbreviations in biochemistry

  • Amino acids, enzymes, coenzymes, nucleic acids etc.

How to study Biochemistry

  • Tips


See all 24 lessons in college chemistry, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself Biochemistry Visually in 24 Hours

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